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Mayan Calendar and year 2012
The ancient Maya were accomplished observers of the sky. With their knowledge of astronomy and mathematics, they developed one of the most accurate calendar systems in human history. In order to chronologically date historical events, the Maya invented the Long Count calendar. The date in the Long Count represents the time since the date of creation, that is, since the beginning of the Mayan era in 3114 BC. The date is written with five numbers, for example: 188.8.131.52.0. This means that since the start date has passed: 6 baktuns, 3 katuns, 10 tuns, 9 uinals and 0 kin.
Each baktun is 144,000 days (ca 394 years)
Each katun is 7200 days (ca 20 years)
Each tun is 360 days (ca 1 year)
Each uinal is 20 days
Each kin is simply 1 day
Therefore, the date 184.108.40.206.0 tells us that the following number of years has passed since the beginning of the era: 6 x 394 years + 3 x 20 years + 10 years + 9 x 20 days + 0 days. So, this date means about 2435 years after the year 3114 BC, or the year 679 BC.
The previous Mayan era ended with the date 220.127.116.11.0 in 3114 BC, and since then the Long Count calendar has been counted from zero. The next occurrence of the date 18.104.22.168.0 fell on December 21, 2012, and this day was considered the end of the 5125-year cycle. The number 13 plays an important and not entirely known role in Mesoamerican calendar systems. Members of the New Age movements believed that a positive spiritual transformation of Earth’s inhabitants would begin on that day. Others suggested that the world would then end.
Researchers of Mayan culture and astronomy agree that 2012 had no special meaning for these people. The winter solstice on that day also did not play any significant role in Mayan religion and culture. In the predictions of the Maya, Aztecs and other Mesoamerican peoples, there is no mention of any sudden or significant event that would occur in 2012. Nor did the modern Maya consider this date significant. All the media hype about the end of the world in 2012 was therefore hardly justified.
Furthermore, the Aztec Sun Stone, which was often shown on this occasion, was misrepresented. This stone has nothing to do with the Long Count calendar, but it presents the myth of the Five Suns, that is the history of the world according to the Aztecs. It tells about the cycles of the world and natural disasters, but does not refer to 2012 in any way. So what was the purpose of all this hype? After reading this study, you will know the answer to this question.
Haab and Tzolk’in calendars
The Maya used three different dating systems in parallel: the Long Count calendar, the Haab (civil calendar), and the Tzolk’in (divine calendar). The Maya recorded all dates using these three calendars, for example, in this way:
22.214.171.124.0, 2 Ajaw, 3 Keh (Long Count calendar, Tzolk’in, Haab).
Of these calendars, only the Haab has a direct reference to the length of the year. The Haab was the civil calendar of the Maya. It consisted of 18 months of 20 days each, followed by 5 additional days called Uayeb. This gives a year length of 365 days. Although the Haab calendar was only 365 days, the Maya knew that the year was actually a fraction of a day longer. The Haab calendar was probably first used around 550 BC.
The Maya sacred calendar was called the Tzolk’in. The Tzolk’in date is a combination of a month of 20 named days and a week of 13 numbered days. The product of 13 times 20 equals 260, thus Tzolk’in gives 260 unique days. The 260-day calendar is considered the oldest and most important of the calendar systems. The original purpose of such a calendar, which has no obvious relation to any astronomical or geophysical cycle, is not precisely known. The 260-day cycle was used by most cultures in pre-Columbian Central America – including those preceding the Maya. The Tzolk’in was probably invented in the early first millennium BC by the Zapotecs or the Olmecs. The Aztecs and the Toltecs adopted the mechanics of the Mayan calendar unaltered, but changed the names of the days of the week and the months. This calendar system was characteristic of Mesoamerican peoples and was not used in other regions.
The Calendar Round
The ancient Maya had a fascination with cycles of time. They combined the 260-day Tzolk’in with the 365-day Haab into a synchronized cycle called the Calendar Round. The smallest number that can be divided evenly by 260 and 365 is 18,980, so the Calendar Round lasted 18,980 days, or nearly 52 years. If today is, for example, „4 Ahau, 8 Cumhu”, then the next day falling on „4 Ahau, 8 Cumhu”, will be nearly 52 years later. The Calendar Round is still in use by many groups in the Guatemalan highlands. Among the Aztecs, the end of the Calendar Round was a time of public panic because they believed that at the end of any given cycle the gods might destroy the world. Every 52 years, the Indians watched the four sides of the sky intently. Every 52 years, they anxiously awaited the return of the gods.
At the end of the 52-year Calendar Round, the rituals of the „New Fire” ceremony were performed. Their purpose was none other than to renew the sun and ensure another 52-year cycle. The New Fire ceremonies were not limited to the Aztecs. In fact, it was an ancient and widespread ritual. The last New Fire ceremony rituals under Aztec rule were probably held from January 23 to February 4, 1507 (12 years before the arrival of the Spanish). The last day of the current Calendar Round will be September 27, 2026.(ref.)
Native Americans believed that before the end of each 52-year cycle, the gods might return to Earth to destroy it. A belief so foolish that it is hard to come up with anything like it. And if it is hard to come up with it, maybe there is some truth in it after all? We will not find out until we check it out for ourselves. The end dates of the last 13 cycles are as follows:
- 2026, Sep 27
- 1974, Oct 10
- 1922, Oct 23
- 1870, Nov 4
- 1818, Nov 17
- 1766, Nov 29
- 1714, Dec 12
- 1662, Dec 24
- 1611, Jan 6
- 1559, Jan 19
- 1507, Feb 1
- 1455, Feb 13
- 1403, Feb 26
- 1351, Mar 10
Let’s take a look at the end-of-cycle years listed above. Do you associate any of them with a catastrophe? I think at least one of them you should.
The biggest pandemic
The greatest catastrophe in human history was the Black Death, that is the plauge pandemic, which killed 75–200 million people. The dates for the beginning and end of the pestilence are not clearly defined, but its greatest intensity was in 1347–1351. This is just before the end of the 52-year cycle! Interesting, isn’t it? This cycle was known to the Mayans and Aztecs long before the plague broke out in Europe, and yet somehow they managed to hit the jackpot. Perhaps this is just a coincidence...
The epidemic was just one of many problems that people had to deal with in those years. During the plague there were also strong earthquakes. For example, on January 25, 1348, the earthquake centered in Friuli (northern Italy) was felt across Europe. Contemporary minds linked the quake with the Black Death, fueling fears that the biblical apocalypse had arrived. There were even more earthquakes at this time. In January 1349, another powerful earthquake shook the Apennine Peninsula. In March of the same year, there was also an earthquake in England, and in September in what is now Italy again. The latter resulted in serious damage to the Roman Colosseum. The chroniclers’ accounts, which I will describe in more detail in the chapter on the Black Death, tell that the series of calamities began with a great cataclysm in India in September 1347. Thus, the most turbulent period began about 3.5 years before the end of the Calendar Round and ended 2 years later, that is about 1.5 years before its end.
Was it just a coincidence that the plague occurred in these years, or did the Aztecs possessed some secret knowledge that we do not have? To find out, we need to look at other great cataclysms. If it is true that the gods try to destroy the earth every 52 years, then traces of these destructions should be traceable in history. Let’s see if any other great historical cataclysm happened just before the end of the 52-year cycle. The probability that a particular catastrophe will happen just within this period by chance, is minimal. The chance of it occurring in the same year of the cycle is as low as 1 in 52 (2%). So we will quickly verify whether the coincidence of the plague with the Mayan calendar is just an accident or if it was something more than that.
The biggest earthquake
So let’s check in which year the largest earthquake occurred, that is, the one that claimed the greatest number of victims. It turns out that the record earthquake happened in the 16th century in Shaanxi province (China). As many as 830,000 people died then! It was a total massacre, and we must remember that it happened at a time when there were over a dozen times fewer people in the world than there are today. The losses in relation to the world population were as great as if 13.6 million people had died today! This catastrophe occurred exactly on February 2, 1556, that is 3 years before the end of the Calendar Round! The likelihood that the biggest earthquake would happen by chance in the same year before the end of the cycle as the greatest pandemic was very low. And yet, by some miracle it happened! Things are starting to get really interesting...
The strongest volcanic eruption
Now let’s look at some other kind of cataclysm. How about volcanic eruptions? The strength of volcanic eruptions is measured by the Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) – a classification system that is somewhat akin to the magnitude scale for earthquakes.
The scale ranges from 0 to 8, with each successive VEI degree 10 times greater than the previous one. „0” is the weakest explosion, almost imperceptible. And „8” is a „mega-colossal” explosion that could change the climate all over the Earth and even lead to mass extinction of species. The most recent eruption of the highest degree occurred approximately 26.5 thousand years ago. Of course, it is not possible to determine its exact year. Therefore, let’s consider only those eruptions for which the exact year is known.
The most powerful eruption of this kind was that of the Indonesian volcano Tambora, which occurred about two hundred years ago. It was not only the strongest outburst, but also the most tragic. An estimated 100,000 people perished from pyroclastic fallout or from subsequent starvation and disease. The strength of the eruption was rated at VEI-7 (super-colossal). It exploded so loudly that it was heard over 2000 km (1,200 mi) away. It was probably the strongest eruption in the last few thousand years! The eruption of Tambora ejected thousands of tonnes of aerosols (sulfide gas compounds) into the upper atmosphere (stratosphere). The high level gases reflecting sunlight, caused widespread cooling known as volcanic winter with heavy rains, snowfalls in June and July in the northern hemisphere, widespread crop failure, and subsequently famine. For this reason, the year following the eruption is known as the Year Without a Summer.
The Tambora volcano erupted on April 10, 1815. That was 3 years and 7 months before the end of the 52-year cycle! Another hit on the bull’s eye! I promise not to underestimate the Aztec gods anymore. Now I am starting to fear them...
The probability of coincidence
Let’s think calmly about what is actually going on here. Since time immemorial, Native Americans were carefully marking the 52-year cycles, believing that at some point before the end of the cycle, the gods might go berserk and destroy the Earth. We know that all ancient cultures had some strange beliefs, but it just so happens that the dates of the historical catastrophes somehow confirm the beliefs of the ancient Americans. All three major disasters occurred in the same year of the 52-year cycle!
Now let’s calculate the probability that this was just a coincidence. The cycle is 52 years long. The probability of the worst pandemic occurring just before the end of the cycle depends on how many of the years in the cycle are considered to be the end of the cycle. Let’s assume that it is the last 5 years. In this case, the likelyhood of hitting is 5 in 52 (10%). And the chance of the biggest earthquake occurring in the same year of the cycle is 1 in 52 (2%). But since the series of cataclysms during the Black Death lasted for 2 years, we should assume that the period of cataclysms also lasts for 2 years. According to these more conservative estimates, the chance of hitting the period of cataclysms is 2 in 52 (4%). Let’s now continue counting. The chance that the largest volcanic eruption will also occur during this 2-year period before the end of the cycle is again 2 in 52 (4%). Therefore, the probability of all three events occurring by chance during this period is the product of all the probabilities. So, it is equal to (5/52) x (2/52) x (2/52), which is 1 in 7030! – This is the probability that all three disasters occurred just by chance during this period. So it could not have been a coincidence! The Aztecs were right! The biggest cataclysms indeed occur every 52 years!
The deadliest tornado
In the same year of the cycle, three most tragic events happened: a plague, an earthquake, and a volcanic eruption. What other ideas for killing people did the Aztec gods come up with? Maybe a tornado? I think it would not hurt to check it out.
As for tornadoes, the four most tragic ones occurred in the 20th century. That is not surprising, because at that time there were already billions of people in the world, and thus it was easier to cause a high number of casualties. Earlier tornadoes have no chance to top this ranking. None of these modern tornadoes occurred at the end of the cycle. But I think it would be more meaningful to look at the number of tornado victims relative to the world population in the year of the cataclysm.
The deadliest tornado in relation to the world population was the one that struck the Grand Harbor of Malta with great force in the 16th century.(ref.) It began as a waterspout, sinking four galleys and killing over 600 people. There are various dates for this cataclysm: from 1551 to 1556. I carefully checked the sources for these dates and found that the most reliable date for this event is the one found in the book „Histoire de Malte” from the year 1840.(ref., ref.) And that is September 23, 1555. So this great tornado appeared 3 years and 4 months before the end of the cycle! This is another cataclysm associated with the 52-year cycle of cataclysms. The probability of this all being a coincidence, according to my calculations, drops to 1 in 183,000.
It is worth noting that in the same month, when the tornado raged in Malta, a strong earthquake occurred in Kashmir, which also killed 600 people.(ref.) During that quake, the movements of the earth’s crust were so great that two villages were reportedly moved to the other side of the river. Note also that both of these cataclysms happened only 4 months before the biggest earthquake (the Shaanxi earthquake of 1556). The gods must have been extremely angry at that time.
Years of cataclysms
The series of earthquakes during the Black Death lasted from the mid-49th year of the cycle to the mid-51st year of the 52-year cycle. I believe that this approximately 2year long period of each cycle is characterized by a significantly increased risk of disasters of various types. The greatest intensity of natural disasters occurs in the middle of this period, that is in the 50th year of the cycle. In previous cycles, the middle of the period of cataclysms was in the following years:
1348 – 1400 – 1452 – 1504 – 1556 – 1608 – 1660 – 1712 – 1764 – 1816 – 1868 – 1920 – 1972 – 2024
It is worth moving these numbers to the browser’s address bar, because we will be looking at them every now and then. We will check if any other major cataclysms have fallen in line with this cycle.
Let’s now return to volcanoes. We are already familiar with the eruption of the Tambora volcano, but let’s still check if other major eruptions also happened during the 2-year period of cataclysms. I have prepared a table that shows all volcanic eruptions with a magnitude of VEI-7, since the 14th century. The list is short. Apart from Tambora, there were only two such powerful eruptions during this period.
|175 – 213 (ref., ref.)
|1465 mystery eruption
|1452 – 1453
|108 (ref., ref.)
In second place is the mysterious volcanic eruption of 1465. Scientists studying glaciers have discovered that the glacier layer deposited in 1465 contains volcanic sediments in great quantities. From this, they deduce that there must have been a major eruption at that time. However, volcanologists have not been able to find the volcano that erupted then.
1452 – 1453
In third place is the eruption of Kuwae volcano, which ejected 108 km³ of lava and ash into the air. A major eruption of Kuwae volcano in Vanuatu in the South Pacific subsequently resulted in global cooling. The eruption released more sulfate than any other event in the last 700 years. Ice cores show that the volcano erupted in late 1452 or early 1453. It is possible that the eruption continued for several months, at the turn of those years. This eruption happened exactly at the period of cataclysms! So we have further confirmation of the theory according to which great cataclysms happen cyclically. And that’s still not all...
Let’s get back to earthquakes. I have carefully compiled a list of the most tragic cataclysms of this kind. I have taken into account the earthquakes of the last 1,000 years, because the dates of events in this period can be considered reliable. In the table, I have listed all the earthquakes in which at least 200,000 people died. For the sake of clarity, I would like to add that the list does not include earthquakes in which the death toll exceeds 200,000 according to some data, but upon careful examination, these figures turn out to be overestimated. Such events include: Haiti earthquake (2010) – 100,000 to 316,000 casualties (the higher figure comes from government estimates widely charged with being deliberately inflated);(ref.) Tabriz (1780);(ref.) Tabriz (1721);(ref.) Syria (1202);(ref.) Aleppo (1138).(ref.) The right-hand column shows the death toll relative to the world population, which is how many people would die if a similar earthquake happened today.
|Shaanxi earthquake (China)
|Lo Mustang earthquake (Nepal)
|30% of Nepal’s population(ref.)
|Haiyuan earthquake (China)
|Ganja earthquake (Azerbaijan)
|Tangshan earthquake (China)
|Indian Ocean tsunami (Indonesia)
|Hongdong earthquake (China)
The Lo Mustang earthquake occurred in Nepal and affected southern China. There is very little information about this event. It is not known exactly how many casualties it caused. According to contemporary sources, about 30% of the Nepalese population died in the earthquake. Today, that would be 8.6 million people. In the 16th century, it must have been at least 500,000, making it possibly one of the deadliest earthquakes in history. This earthquake happened in 1505, which is precisely during the 2-year period of cataclysms!
The Haiyuan earthquake, measuring 8.6 on the Richter scale, caused a landslide in Gansu Province (China), killing 273,400 people. More than 70,000 people died in Haiyuan County alone, accounting for 59% of the county’s total population. The earthquake triggered the most tragic landslide in history, claiming over 32,500 lives.(ref.) This earthquake also happened during the period of cataclysms!
The Ganja earthquake was one of the worst seismic events in history. It affected the Seljuk Empire and the Kingdom of Georgia (modern-day Azerbaijan and Georgia). Estimates of the death toll vary, but it is at least 230,000. The cataclysm occurred 3 years and 7 months before the end of the Calendar Round, which is again during the period of cataclysms!
All four of the greatest earthquakes occurred within the 2-year period of cataclysms! Three of them were also the largest in relation to the world population. Smaller earthquakes have happened in completely random years.
According to various estimates, between 100,000 and 700,000 people died in the Tangshan earthquake. These highest estimates were greatly exaggerated. Chinese State Seismological Bureau states that 242,419 people died in the quake, which reflects the official figure reported by the state-run Xinhua News Agency. The Chinese Earthquake Administration also attributes 242,769 deaths. This quake happened in modern times, with a very large population, so the death toll is high. However, in relation to the world population, the losses were not as significant as in the aforementioned earthquakes.
The Indian Ocean Tsunami is an event that most of us remember. In this case, it was not the earthquake that was the direct cause of death, but the big wave it triggered. People in 14 different countries died, most of them in Indonesia.
The extremely tragic Hongdong earthquake occurred in the territory of the Mongol Empire (today’s China).
Now that we know that cataclysms on Earth happen in cycles, it is worth checking whether the cycle of cataclysms also affects events in space, such as solar flares. But first, let me give you a handful of information needed to understand this issue.
A solar flare is a sudden release of a huge amount of energy by the Sun caused by a local disappearance of the magnetic field. The flare carries energy in the form of electromagnetic waves and streams of particles (electrons, protons, and ions). During solar flares, a coronal mass ejection (CME) may occur. This is a huge cloud of plasma thrown by the Sun into interplanetary space. These massive plasma clouds travel the distance between the Sun and Earth in hours to days.
When a coronal mass ejection reaches Earth, it causes disturbances in the Earth’s magnetic field, that is called a geomagnetic storm. Aurorae then appear near the poles in the sky. Intense geomagnetic storms can damage power grids over vast areas, disrupt radio communications, and damage satellites.
The frequency of solar flares and geomagnetic storms depends on the phase of solar activity, and this varies cyclically. Solar cycles last about 11 years. Sometimes a little shorter, and sometimes a little longer. The cycle begins with a minimum of solar activity, and after about 3–5 years it reaches its maximum. Thereafter, activity declines for about 6–7 years until the next solar cycle begins. In the maximum phase, the Sun undergoes a magnetic poles reversal. This means that the magnetic north pole of the Sun swaps with the south pole. It can also be said that this 11-year cycle is half of the 22-year cycle, after which the poles return to their original positions.
At times close to the solar minimum, the activity of the Sun is low. This is manifested by the small number of sunspots. During the solar maximum, solar activity is stronger and there are many spots. This is when a large number of solar flares and coronal mass ejections occur. Solar flares of any given size are some 50 times more frequent at solar maximum than at minimum.
I have found the most intense geomagnetic storms ever recorded and listed them in the table below. Let’s check if their occurrence is related to the 52-year cycle. It is worth noting that lists of major geomagnetic storms sometimes include storms such as the Bastille Day event (July 2000) and the Halloween solar storms (October 2003). However, upon close inspection,(ref., ref.) I find that these two storms were not as intense as those shown in the table.
|Time to the solar maximum (ref.)
|The Carrington Event
|5 months before (Feb 1860)
|New York Railroad Superstorm
|3 years 9 months after (Aug 1917)
|Solar storm of 1730
|1–2 years after (1728)
|Solar storm of 1972
|3 years 9 months after (Nov 1968)
|The 1989 Quebec Power Outage
|8 months before (Nov 1989)
The Carrington Event was by most measures the most extreme solar storm ever documented. Telegraph machines reportedly electrocuted operators and caused small fires. The storm was so intense that aurora borealis was visible even in tropical areas.
The New York Railroad Superstorm was the most intense geomagnetic storm of the 20th century. The farthest equatorward (lowest latitude) aurora ever was documented. The event got its name from the disruption of trains in New York City following a fire in a control tower and telegraph station. It burned out fuses and electrical apparatus. It caused total communications blackouts lasting several hours. If the 1921 storm occurred today, there would be widespread interference to multiple technological systems, and it would be quite significant, with effects including electrical blackouts, telecommunications failure, and even the loss of some satellites. Most experts regard the 1859 event to be the most powerful geomagnetic storm on record. But new data suggest that the storm of May 1921 could have equaled or even eclipsed the Carrington Event in intensity.(ref.) And what is the most interesting, this magnetic storm happened just in the period of expected cataclysms!
The solar storm of 1730 was at least as intense as the 1989 event, but less intense than the Carrington Event.(ref.)
The solar storm of 1972 was the most extreme solar particle event by some measures. Fastest CME transit was recorded. It was the most hazardous geomagnetic storm in the spaceflight era. It caused severe technological disruptions and the accidental detonation of numerous magnetically triggered sea mines.(ref.) This storm also happened in the year corresponding to the 52-year cycle of cataclysms!
The 1989 Quebec Power Outage was in some respects the most extreme storm of the spaceflight era. It shut down the power grid of the province of Quebec (Canada).
Of the five largest recorded geomagnetic storms, three occurred very near the maximum of solar activity. The storms of 1859 and 1989 occurred only a few months before solar maximum. The storm of 1730 also occurred close to the time of greatest activity, that is 1–2 years after the maximum (exact data from this period are not available). We can see that the timing of these three storms is in line with the well-known 11-year solar cycle.
In contrast, the other two storms occurred during periods of low solar activity, long after the solar maximum point, at a time closer to the minimum. These two storms were not at all associated with the 11-year solar cycle. And the interesting thing is that both storms occurred just before the end of the 52-year cycle known to Native Americans! It seems that the power of their gods reaches far beyond the Earth and can also cause great flares on the Sun!
It is worth mentioning here an unusual phenomenon that took place on August 10, 1972, that is, during the great geomagnetic storm. On that day a meteor appeared in the sky, which did not fall on Earth, but headed back into space. This is a very rare phenomenon, which has been observed only a few times so far. Measuring between 3 and 14 meters fireball passed within 57 km (35 mi) of the Earth’s surface. It entered the Earth’s atmosphere at a speed of 15 km/s (9.3 mi/s) over Utah (USA), then passed northwards, and exited the atmosphere over Alberta (Canada).
I think this phenomenon may have something to do with magnetism. The incident happened during a geomagnetic storm. Besides, the meteor bounced off the atmosphere in the Canadian territory, just in the vicinity of the Earth’s magnetic north pole, where the Earth’s magnetic field is strongest. It is possible that the meteor was magnetized and has been repelled by the Earth’s magnetic field.
Timeline of cataclysms
Let’s now check one by one what happened in every period of cataclysms. Once again, I give the years in which the greatest severity of disasters is expected:
1348 – 1400 – 1452 – 1504 – 1556 – 1608 – 1660 – 1712 – 1764 – 1816 – 1868 – 1920 – 1972 – 2024
It turns out that most of these years are associated with some great catastrophe.
|1347 – 1351 AD
|The Black Death pandemic kills 75–200 million people. The greatest intensity of the epidemic was in the year 1348.
|January 25. The great earthquake in Friuli (northern Italy) kills over 40,000 people.
|1452 – 1453 AD
|An eruption with the magnitude of VEI-7 of Kuwae volcano in Vanuatu releases more sulfate than any other event in the last 700 years.
|June 6. Lo Mustang earthquake kills about 30% of the Nepalese population. It was probably the second deadliest earthquake in history.
|September 23. The Grand Harbor of Malta tornado kills at least 600 people. It was the deadliest tornado in terms of world population. In the same month, the earth shook in Kashmir.
|February 2. The deadliest earthquake in history occurs with the epicenter in Shaanxi Province (China). 830,000 people were killed.
|April 10. The eruption of the Tambora volcano (Indonesia). Perhaps the most powerful volcanic eruption in the last few thousand years and the most tragic in history (about 100,000 casualties). It caused the volcanic winter of 1816 (the so-called Year Without a Summer).
|January 30. A large meteorite fell near Pułtusk (Poland).(ref.) This phenomenon was visible from a large part of Europe: from Estonia to Hungary and from Germany to Belarus. The meteoroid exploded in the Earth’s atmosphere, shattering into as many as 70,000 tiny pieces. The total mass of the fragments found is 9 tons, and in this respect it was the second largest recorded meteorite fall (after Sikhote-Alin in 1947 – 23 tons).(ref.) The Pułtusk meteorite belongs to the common chondrites, which have a high iron content. Scientists have determined that it came from the asteroid belt located between Mars and Jupiter.
|August 13. The Arica earthquake shakes southern Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), causing a destructive 16-meter-high tsunami that hits Hawaii and New Zealand. Estimates of the death toll vary greatly from 25,000 to 70,000.(ref.)
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|The Haiyuan earthquake in China causes a landslide; 273,400 people die. It was the third most tragic earthquake in history and also the most tragic landslide in history.(ref.)
|May 13–15. The most intense geomagnetic storm of the 20th century.
|August 2–11. A huge geomagnetic storm (one of the largest ever recorded).
|August 10. A great meteor appears in the sky.
Most of the great cataclysms happened in a 2-year period, just before the end of the 52-year cycle. It was during this short period that the following happened:
– the biggest pandemic in history
– the four largest earthquakes
– two of the three most powerful volcanic eruptions
– both great geomagnetic storms that occurred beyond the maximum of solar activity
– the relatively deadliest tornado
The probability that all these catastrophes coincide only by chance in this period is one in many millions. This is basically impossible. We can be sure that the greatest cataclysms occur cyclically. It is worth noting that cyclicity does not apply to small cataclysms.
During the period of cataclysms, also large meteors appeared more frequently than usual. One of them touched the atmosphere and flew off into space in search of further adventures, the other exploded in the atmosphere and broke into tens of thousands of pieces.
The event, which was the earliest in relation to the 52-year cycle, was the eruption of the Tambora volcano (1815), which occurred 3 years and 7 months before the end of the cycle. The latest was the New York Railroad Superstorm (1921), which happened 1 year and 5 months before the end of the cycle. The Native Americans waited this year and a half to be sure, before they celebrated the beginning of safe time. So we can conclude that the period of natural disasters lasts about 2 years and 2 months.
The Black Death was a catastrophe of the same cycle, but of a much larger scale. A significant part of humanity died out then. The epidemic was accompanied by a series of natural disasters. The first one happened 3 years and 6 months before the end of the cycle, and the last – 1 year and 6 months before the end. This means that the time when the series of cataclysms occurred coincides very accurately with the period of cataclysms.
The Maya had a well-developed astronomy and were long aware of the existence of the cataclysmic cycle. However, modern astronomy is undoubtedly even better developed. There is nothing that can remain hidden from today’s scientists. Therefore, the secret of cyclical cataclysms is certainly well known to them. The difference between the two civilizations is that the American Indian elite shared their knowledge with the society, while with us valuable knowledge is available only to the rulers. Ordinary people know only what they need to work efficiently and pay taxes. Knowledge about cyclical cataclysms is kept from us.
If there is a cycle of cataclysms, then there must also be a cause for it. Phenomena such as solar flares and meteorite falls suggest that the causes of the cycle should be sought outside the Earth. The cosmic source of the cycle is also indicated by its unusual regularity, which is probably found only in space – the planets orbit the Sun in regular cycles. Thus, there must be something in the cosmos that regularly appears and interacts with the Sun and Earth The American Indians believed that the gods were responsible for the occurrence of cataclysms. However, in ancient times the gods were identified with the planets. For example, in Greek mythology, the most important of the gods was Zeus. His counterpart in Roman mythology was the god Jupiter. Both gods were identified with the largest planet – Jupiter. Therefore, I think it can be assumed that the Indians referred to the planets when speaking of gods causing cataclysms.
There are catastrophic theories that assume the existence of an additional, unknown planet – Planet X, which is supposed to circle the Sun in a highly elongated orbit. Assuming that such a planet actually exists, a thesis can be put forward that every 52 years it approaches the center of the Solar System. When a celestial body with a large mass comes close to the Earth, then it begins to affect our planet with its gravity, causing cataclysms. A great force of attraction acts on the tectonic plates and causes them to start shifting. This could explain such a frequent occurrence of earthquakes during periods of cataclysms. Volcanic eruptions are closely related to earthquakes. Both of these phenomena occur most frequently at the junction of tectonic plates. The pressure increase in magma chambers, caused by the attraction of Planet X, may certainly trigger a volcanic eruption.
Planet X affects not only the Earth, but the entire Solar System. By its influence on the Sun it somehow causes solar flares. Planet X also attracts smaller objects orbiting the Sun, such as meteoroids and asteroids. Millions of rocks of various sizes orbit in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. That is where the Pułtusk meteorite came from. Normally, asteroids calmly orbit the Sun, but when Planet X appears nearby, it starts attracting them. Some meteoroids get knocked out of their trajectory and fly in different directions through the Solar System. Some of them strike the Earth. This would explain the frequent meteorite falls during the period of cataclysms.
Planet X interacts with the Earth and the Solar System cyclically, every 52 years. Its impact lasts each time for about 2 years. This is where the 2-year periods of cataclysms come from. This is a very imperfect and incomplete theory, but for the first chapter, it should be sufficient. Later I will come back to this issue and try to thoroughly investigate the cause of cyclical disasters.